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As States Legalize Medical Marijuana, It’s Crucial to Understand Its Health Benefits and Consequences



A medical marijuana dispensary on Ventura Boulevard in the San Fernando Valley, in southern California/Laurie Avocado

Most marijuana-related news focuses on how to invest, tax revenue for states, shops and growers. But there’s a lot missing from this conversation. How are states legalizing marijuana in ways that protect public health based on facts, science, and rational analysis?

As of today, 10 states and Washington, D.C., have legalized recreational marijuana use. More than 30 have legal medical marijuana, and both Canada and Mexico have federal approval of medical and recreational usage. With even more states poised to legalize cannabis, ample questions are being raised about governance and regulation, health effects, scientific research, and public health.

In the United States, where the federal government still officially decrees marijuana to be illegal, the federal government continues to be abdicating its role of leading in a world in which there is no natural centralized body for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information and knowledge learned across states – and from our neighbors to the north and south.

It is vital that we as a nation understand the potential benefits and consequences of cannabis legalization, how to create sensible policies/regulations, and how to design effective education programs for clinicians and citizens. Cannabis poses different issues than alcohol or tobacco, and there is an opportunity to learn from those industries about what has worked and what has not. States new to legal cannabis also need support and clarity as they grapple with public debate, public health and safety challenges, and the complexities of designing a state cannabis system.

That’s why the 2019 North American Cannabis Summit is so important to national public health and understanding. This multinational conference offers a neutral forum for stakeholders from all arenas to come together and discuss controversial topics objectively, in the context of respectful dialogue and open exploration.

At the 2017 National Cannabis Summit in Denver, attendees felt they could share and ask questions and receive practical, applicable knowledge and experience to bring back to their states. The 2019 Summit is expanding to include the perspectives and lessons learned from Canada and Mexico, and it’s being held in California—one of the first states to legalize cannabis and the one furthest in the journey of implementation.

There are so many questions, and so many unknowns. How does legalization affect our youth? Our seniors? How about pregnant women and young families? What about cannabis in certain settings, like the workplace, the criminal justice system, personal family homes, and public housing? How are we monitoring and surveilling the results of legalization and sharing data in consistent ways?

Hearing from academics, researchers, policymakers, implementers, and clinicians gives listeners the kind of science-based information they need, whether they are lawmakers, healthcare providers, or other researchers seeking their own answers.

In January, the 2019 North American Cannabis Summit in Los Angeles will explore themes of public health, science, and health equity; public safety; prevention and education; emerging research and epidemiological data; governance, federal law, and emerging policy; health effects; and regulatory issues.

Before we go too much further down this road, let’s make sure we’re paying attention to the collective knowledge we’re gaining from the experience of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Let’s use what we know and learn to inform the emerging cannabis industry, to keep public health and the needs of communities front and center, and to implement legalization in as measured and replicable a way as possible.

Register for the National Cannabis Summit, click here.


Linda Frazier is senior program manager and director of addictions initiatives at Advocates for Human Potential, Inc. She has more than 25 years of extensive leadership, consulting, and clinical experience in behavioral health and addictions and is co-chair of the 2019 North American Cannabis Summit.


Thirty Years After the Berlin Wall Fell, We Are Part of History, But No Longer in History



Photo of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin on November 9, 2019, by Ashlyn Coyle

Thirty years ago this past weekend, on November 9, the Berlin Wall came down. Both as a symbol and as a reality, the fall of the wall opened the door to political freedom in that part of the world dominated by communism. It was a time of stunning optimism and hope, or so it seemed.

But the fall of the wall did much more than that, too: It announced the end of the ideological conflict between market capitalism and communism. That was the end of the major world-historical struggle.

It’s fashionable now to say that all of this celebration was premature: Communism has been replaced as a world-historical ideology by religious fanaticism of the sort the crashed airplanes into the Twin Towers.

Alternatively, say those who are au courant: Border walls live on in the form of poisonous nationalism that has spread to the heart of liberal democracies, even in the United States.

But I dissent. Political history really did reach a breaking point in 1989, much as it did in 1806 (or thereabouts), the year in which the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel proclaimed the “end of history” in his Phenomenology of Spirit.

In fact, I celebrate the essential truth of “The End of History” thesis first articulated by Francis Fukuyama in his essay in the summer of 1989, published in the National Interest. Re-reading the piece this weekend, I was struck by how well it has stood up to the test of time.

Experiencing the ‘end of history’ for myself in South Africa

I was living in South Africa and working as a journalist when Fukuyama’s essay was published. Somehow, the buzz about the piece traveled all the way across the Atlantic, and all the way from the northern to the southern hemisphere. I vividly remember that my sister (visiting me in South Africa as we traveled) and I took turns reading the essay to one other, out loud, as we drove the Garden Route from Cape Town to Johannesburg, where I lived.

Fukayama’s piece appears to have been written sometime before the Tiananmen Square massacre on June 4, 1989, in that it goes on at length and speaks positively about the “reform movement” in China. But my reading of the piece certainly came after (and not before) hundreds or more protesters in China were killed and martial law imposed.

Roll back 30 years and remember, however, that China had a much smaller mind-share of world-consciousness. This is, of course, because of subsequent post-Tiananmen developments. China lurched back on the capitalist path toward market-oriented reform in subsequent years. Material benefits have flowed to billions of individuals around the world on the strength of the idea-force that market activity serves human welfare.

What I remembered from reading Fukuyama’s essay is this: Hegel’s view that ideas are more powerful than the material wealth that drives the materialist philosophers’ views.

From the essay:

  • For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness – an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology.

Just the blink of an eye

Looking back on the progress and regress of the past three decades, the significance of the Berlin Wall’s collapse still shines brightly.

From the perspective of a single human life, progress comes very slowly. From example, the women who gathered at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York State in July 1848 – the first organized effort to secure women’s suffrage – had a vision to secure the universal vote. Yet it took until August 1920, or 72 years later, before the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution secured women’s right to vote.

Historically speaking, a hundred years is still just the blink of an eye. Or, as Fukuyama, age 67, was quoted last week as saying: “In 100 years, people will still mark 1989 as a really important turning point where Europe reunited and the grip of communism really ended, including, two years later, that with the collapse of the Soviet Union itself.”

Fukuyama is right about the enduring significance of November 9, 1989. And his article – written, of course, before the fall of the wall, yet without directly predicting it – highlighted the truth then emerging in the world’s consciousness: Communism is no match for liberal, democratic, market-oriented economies and societies.

From my perch as a journalist writing about the Group Areas Act and other forms of “petit apartheid” in South Africa, I personally witnessed how the truth about the end of history played out in one nation. The white Afrikaner minority that had dominated a black-majority South Africa for years took this comfort from the end of the Cold War: Democratic change was not quite so scary once the ideological influence of the Soviet Union was out of the picture. That enabled reform-minded Afrikaners, including President Frederik Willem de Klerk, to take a bold step and release Nelson Mandela from prison in February 1990. They began negotiating the political future of South Africa.

Of history, but no longer in history

Fukuyama’s provocative and much-discussed thesis – the “end of history,” really? — was of course parodied and, later criticized. But upon re-reading, the article acquits itself quite well.

What Fukuyama was defending was Hegel’s view that – by Hegel’s own eyewitness of Napoleon’s defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena in 1806 – the ideals of the American and French Revolutions had already become actualized within the vanguard of humanity.

Certainly, more work remained to be done, between 1806 and 1989, in the culmination of liberal democracy. Among these were the end of slavery, the beginning of civil rights, and the universalization of the franchise.

But for Fukuyama and other defenders of Hegel, these refinements in society only underscored that the liberal democratic state – dominant in the wake of World War II, triumphant after the fall of the Berlin Wall – was and is in fact the culmination of world history.

Fukuyama’s piece explicated the twin challenges to liberal democracy: Fascism defeated in World War II, and communism defeated in the Cold War. He even previewed the “contradictions” potentially unresolvable by liberalism: Nationalism and Islamic theocratism. Certainly, both of these have emerged as flash points both “between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history,” as he put it at the time.

The truth remain that we cannot on earth improve upon the liberal democratic ideals of the Enlightenment. That is why it is disconcerting to see our country’s two main political parties each flirting with illiberal ideologies in the form of progressive socialism on the one hand, and nativist nationalism on the other.

The passions aroused by government doing “big things” is, as Fukuyama frankly acknowledged, perhaps the greatest challenge to the end of history. We all want to be a part of history. That will remain true even if we can no longer be “in history.” As he noted:

  • The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one’s life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands.

It’s time for someone to stand up and give thanks that history in fact ended in 1989 (or 1806), and I also give thanks for the “post-history” that my children inherit today.

And in acknowledging history’s imperfections that are gradually being made right, we should look back upon the past 200 years as it really was and as it really is: Just two blinks of an eye.

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Data Privacy Rules Should Create Consistency, Not Chaos

The views reflected in Expert Opinion pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Breakfast Media LLC. 



Following a string of data breaches that touched tens of millions of consumers, and revelations of user data exploitation by popular social media platforms, there’s a broad national consensus: It’s time for internet users to have guarantees about privacy and data protection. Legislation is long overdue.

Some states, such as California, have already taken action. One year ago, California passed a sweeping privacy protections law. Other states have expressed an intention to do so, and Congress is expected to consider legislation. What’s the best way forward?

Congress must take its responsibility to protect user privacy and data seriously. At a minimum, any new federal law should provide internet users with the knowledge of which personal information is collected by the websites they visit and how that information is used. They should have a meaningful opportunity to opt out of these collection and use practices.

Congress should also ensure that any user’s sensitive personal identification information — such as a driver’s license, credit card number or Social Security number — can be collected and retained only with that user’s consent. Reasonable rights to access and correct user-provided information should also be afforded.

But it’s important to realize that web services are offered on a national basis and many would be disrupted by a multiplicity of diverse and contradictory state privacy requirements. The compliance costs could be enormous, particularly for small and startup businesses. There may be situations where it’s literally impossible to comply with the conflicting requirements of different states’ laws.

Not only would compliance with various state requirements be exceedingly difficult, consumers would be constantly unsure about which state’s privacy requirements apply. Consider the mobile service provider whose customer lives in one state, travels to another state and accesses an e-commerce site headquartered in a third state. The service provider is headquartered in a fourth state and uses a server data center in a fifth state.

Whose law applies — the state of residence of the customer or internet edge provider? The state of location of the customer or that of the service provider? Or the state where a server sends and receives customer messages?

To avoid this obvious confusion, it’s far better for Congress to adopt one strong, clear national privacy standard that would be applicable across the entire internet ecosystem, from the service provider to content-providing companies. In order to prevent disruption and consumer confusion in the application of an internet privacy law, Congress should pass its own privacy standard that preempts the states from their own regulation.

Such action would certainly not be new. Congress routinely preempts states in instances where a single uniform national standard is called for.

For example, in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, Congress preempted state (and local) action on the energy efficiency of appliances where a national standard is in place. In the Toxic Substances Control Act, Congress preempted state action in favor of national regulation of chemicals covered by Environmental Protection Agency rules. Congress has also been quite clear that action by the Food and Drug Administration preempts conflicting state standards in the area of approval of new pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

Appliances, chemicals, prescription drugs, medical devices — all of these are goods of major importance to the national economy. So too is e-commerce involving the sale of both physical and digital goods. Federal preemption was right in the areas referenced above and, to avoid harming the internet economy and preventing consumer misunderstanding, is also right for data privacy standards.

It would be a critical mistake for Congress to enact a data privacy law that only provides a base from which the states can add additional requirements. Through the resulting disruption and chaos, harm would come to the internet economy while doing little if anything to advance real privacy for internet users.

A single, strong national data privacy standard would provide clear rules for companies to follow while fostering consumer understanding of the privacy assurances that have been extended to them.

Fortunately, the need for data privacy protection enjoys rare, widespread bipartisan support. It’s now Congress’ turn to act.

This piece was originally published in the San Francisco Chronicle on June 26, 2019, and is reprinted with permission of the author. 

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Sen. Mitt Romney’s Criticisms of Donald Trump Highlight New Political Culture for Mormons



Mitt Romney and then Pres.-Elect Donald Trump in November 2016/CNN

WASHINGTON, January 7, 2019 – Without even trying very hard, Utah Sen. Mitt Romney has set off new questions among Republicans about Donald Trump.

But with his OpEd in the Washington Post on New Year’s Day, the re-emergence on the national stage of the nation’s Most Prominent Mormon will also inevitably set off new questions about Mormonism’s place in America.

Most political observers know at least something of the back-and-forth relationship between these two more-than-multi-millionaires. Call them both self-made men, with a little help from their fathers.

Trump endorsed Romney in 2012. When the tables were turned, though, Romney excoriated Trump in March 2016. But upon Trump’s victory, Romney issued a congratulatory Tweet. Then Trump embarrassed Romney by dangling an unoffered secretary of state-ship. Then last year, when Romney ran for Senate, he again accepted Trump’s endorsement, avoided all talk of Trump, and appeared to be running a Utah-based campaign.

Except for this tip-off: Romney promised to “bring Utah’s values to Washington.”

What exactly are “Utah values”? You can be as politic as you want, but everyone in Utah knows that means “Mormon values,” or at least the values of a state heavily influenced by (and still 60 percent-inhabited-by) Mormons.

Remember that Utah began its life as a theocracy, with Brigham Young, the second prophet of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ruling spiritually and also politically as the territorial governor.

Before we get too far into “Mormon values,” let’s back up and make something clear. According to the current prophet of the church, we’re not supposed to use the word “Mormon” anymore, even in referring to the church’s members.

The church’s media relations web site goes so far as to say that “the term ‘Mormonism’ is inaccurate and should not be used.” It even downplays the use of the term “Latter-day Saints,” a long-approved secondary name.

This vigorous and even challenging new linguistic emphasis came personally from Russell M. Nelson, the faith’s 94-year-old chief. And it isn’t even among the top three most dramatic changes initiated by Nelson in the year since he was anointed as the faith’s prophet on January 14, 2018.

In April, Nelson presided over his first general conference, an assembly in Salt Lake, and transmitted to millions more gathered over television, radio and the internet. In it, Nelson and the church’s other leaders, the apostles, officially ended a decades-old practice called “home teaching.” The old program heavily relied upon obligation, and called for every male member of the church to visit a set number of congregants each month. A new, replacement program called “ministering” includes women as well as men, girls as well as boys. Mandatory monthly visits are gone, making ministering more of a “spirit of the law” service.

Another big change followed at the October conference. Henceforth, church hours would be reduced. Instead of three hours at church on Sunday (meetings to which both members and non-members are allowed to attend), everyone would now spend only two hours at church. The stated goal is to use that extra hour of time to study religious scriptures in the home.

A third major change, announced January 2, 2019, right as it went into effect, shortened and otherwise modified the faith’s sacred rituals in its members-only temples.

The key message threaded throughout this pace of dizzying changes by church leaders is a loosening of the “letter of the law,” and also a greater emphasis on equal opportunities for women and men, girls and boys.

Nelson’s second-in-command among the church’s apostles, Dallin Oaks, and others have encouraged these and other changes. At a June 2018 celebration commemorating the 40th anniversary of the end of the church’s historic ban on black members receiving the priesthood, Oaks delivered a blunt message to “abandon attitudes of prejudice against any group of God’s children,” particularly racism, “probably the most familiar source of prejudice today [of which] we are all called to repent.”

Also, at roughly the same time as Donald Trump’s political ascent, the LDS church began to place a greater priority on the need to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees through its “I Was a Stranger” program, which itself was bolstered by Utah Republican Gov. Gary Herbert’s offer that the state take in more refugees, not less.

While the church doesn’t take partisan stances, it’s impossible not to see that the political culture which Mormons inhabit is becoming – by the standard of today – more liberal, not more conservative.

The Mormon Romney may once have been a “conservative.” But, when asked on CNN why he choose to articulate his character-driven criticisms of Donald Trump, he cited the occasions in which he had already publicly weighed in:

“The Charlottesville response by the President was something that gave me great concern. The support for Roy Moore in the Senate race was something I was very, very concerned about. His attack on the media, I wrote an entire piece about that.”

There you have the reasons for Romney’s core critique of Trumpism: Racism, sexism, and authoritarian impulses. None of those are “conservative” concerns, or at least concerns of Trump-world. Indeed, these liberal democratic norms are all well in keeping with where Romney’s Mormon constituency is increasingly finding itself.

Certainly this politico-religious realignment is no more complete than is the stereotype that Republicans are gun-toting church-goers, and Democrats are tree-hugging agnostics or atheists. There’s even some movement among other Latter-day Saint senators. (And this analysis doesn’t even consider the most powerful Latter-day Saint senator ever: Former Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nevada.)

Utahns consider outgoing Sen. Orrin Hatch to have been Mormonism’s “ambassador” to all things Trump. They indulged his over-the-top support of The Donald as being more in keeping with his inner Republican than any other inner voice.

And Mike Lee, Utah’s other senator – and who, like Romney, refused to vote for Trump – is edging closer by the day to Donald Trump. Even this, though, may be driven by the exception, rather than the rule: Trump’s sudden willingness in December to support the landmark criminal and sentencing reform package long championed by Sen. Lee.

If Romney is stepping into any other Mormon senator’s shoes, it’s those of outgoing Arizona Republican Sen. Jeff Flake, whose criticisms of Trump have arguably cost him his political career in the state. Arizona, which is only  5 percent LDS, was more wary of immigration than Utah. And yet – as with last November’s senate victory by the Democrats – even Arizona is increasingly having second thoughts about Donald Trump.

The fight is clearly on for the soul of the conservatism within the Republican Party. And with Mitt Romney’s once again raising the stakes on the unsavory parts of Trumpism, we should see greater discussion about the role that Latter-day Saints are playing in opposition to it.


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